Skip to Main Content

Biomedical Sciences: Protocols & Methods

Subject Guide for the School of Biomedical Sciences

What are Protocols?

In the biomedical sciences a protocol is a predefined written procedural method of the design and implementation of an experiment. The use of standardized laboratory methods helps ensure the successful replication of results by others in the same laboratory or by other laboratories.

Search for Protocols

Search for Methods

The 3 R's

An essential part of the design of any experimental method involves consideration of the "3 R's", first described in The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by Russell and Burch (1959).

The 3 R’s are:

ReductionMinimize the number of animals used to smallest number needed to obtain statistically relevant results.
Refinement – Use techniques that reduce the incidence or severity of pain and/or distress in animals.
ReplacementSubstitution of non-animal methods or material or a lower species that may be less sensitive to pain and distress.